Record involving Informative Technology
There’s no written evidence which can inform us who has coined the phrase educational technology. Different educationists, scientists and philosophers at different time intervals have put forwarded different definitions of Educational Technology. Educational technology is a multifaceted and integrated process involving people, procedure, ideas, devices, and organization, where technology from different fields of science is borrowed depending on the necessity and requirement of education for implementing, evaluating, and managing methods to those problems associated with all aspects of human learning.
Educational technology, broadly speaking, has passed through five stages.
The initial stage of educational technology is in conjunction with the use of aids like charts, maps, symbols, models, specimens and concrete materials. The term educational technology was used as synonyms to audio-visual aids.
The next stage of educational technology is related to the ‘electronic revolution’ with the introduction and establishment of sophisticated hardware and software. Usage of various audio-visual aids like projector, magic lanterns, tape-recorder, radio and television brought a revolutionary change in the educational scenario. Accordingly, educational technology concept was taken with regards to these sophisticated instruments and equipments for effective presentation of instructional materials.
The next stage of educational technology is related to the development of mass media which often generated ‘communication revolution’ for instructional purposes. Computer-assisted Instruction (CAI) employed for education since 1950s also became popular during this era.
The fourth stage of educational technology is discernible by the individualized procedure for instruction. The invention of programmed learning and programmed instruction provided a new dimension to educational technology. Something of self-learning predicated on self-instructional materials and teaching machines emerged.
The latest concept of educational technology is influenced by the idea of system engineering or system approach which centers on language laboratories, teaching machines, programmed instruction, multimedia technologies and the use of the computer in instruction. In accordance with it, educational technology is a systematic way of designing, carrying out and evaluating the total procedure for teaching and learning with regards to specific objectives predicated on research.
Educational technology throughout the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age
Educational technology, regardless of the uncertainty of the origin of the term, could be traced back once again to enough time of the three-age system periodization of human prehistory; namely the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age.
Duringthe Stone Age, ignition of fire by rubbing stones, manufacture of numerous handmade weapon and utensils from stones and clothing practice were a few of the simple technological developments of utmost importance. A fraction of Stone Age people developed ocean-worthy outrigger canoe ship technology to migrate from one place to some other throughout the Ocean, by that they developed their first informal education of understanding of the ocean currents, weather conditions, sailing practice, astronavigation, and star maps. Throughout the later Stone Age period (Neolithic period),for agricultural practice, polished stone tools were created from many different hard rocks largely by digging underground tunnels, which is often considered as the initial steps in mining technology. The polished axes were so effective that even after appearance of bronze and iron; people tried it for clearing forest and the establishment of crop farming.
Although Stone Age cultures left no written records, but archaeological evidences proved their shift from nomadic life to agricultural settlement. Ancient tools conserved in different museums, cave paintings like Altamira Cave in Spain, and other prehistoric art, such as the Venus of Willendorf, Mother Goddess from Laussel, France etc. are a few of the evidences in favour of their cultures.
Neolithic Revolution of Stone Age resulted into the looks of Bronze Age with development of agriculture, animal domestication, and the adoption of permanent settlements. For these practices Bronze Age people further developed metal smelting, with copper and later bronze, an alloy of tin and copper, being the materials of their choice.
The Iron Age people replaced bronze and developed the data of iron smelting technology to lessen the price of living since iron utensils were stronger and cheaper than bronze equivalents. In several Eurasian cultures, the Iron Age was the last period ahead of the development of written scripts.
Educational technology during the period of Ancient civilizations
In accordance with Paul Saettler, 2004, Educational technology could be traced back once again to enough time when tribal priests systematized bodies of knowledge and ancient cultures invented pictographs or sign writing to record and transmit information. In every stage of human civilization, one can find an instructional technique or set of procedures designed to implement a specific culture which were also supported by amount of investigations and evidences. The more complex the culture, the more technical became the technology of instruction designed to reflect particular methods for individual and social behaviour designed to run an educated society. Over centuries, each significant shift in educational values, goals or objectives generated diverse technologies of instruction.
The maximum advances in technology and engineering included the rise of the ancient civilizations. These advances stimulated and educated other societies in the world to adopt new methods for living and governance.
The Indus Valley Civilization was an earlier Bronze Age civilization that was located in the northwestern region of the Indian Subcontinent. The civilization was primarily flourished round the Indus River basin of the Indus and the Punjab region, extending upto the Ghaggar-Hakra River valley and the Ganges-Yamuna Doab, (most of the part is under today’s Pakistan and the western states of modern-day India in addition to some area of the civilization extending upto southeastern Afghanistan, and the easternmost element of Balochistan, Iran).
There’s a longterm controversy to be sure concerning the language that the Harappan people spoke. It is assumed that their writing was at least is apparently or perhaps a pictographic script. The script seems to have had about 400 basic signs, with lots of variations. People write their script with the direction generally from directly to left. The majority of the writing was found on seals and sealings which were probably utilized in trade and official & administrative work.
Harappan people had the data of the measuring tools of length, mass, and time. They certainly were the initial in the world to produce a system of uniform weights and measures.
In a study carried out by P. N. Rao et al. in 2009, published in Science, computer scientists unearthed that the Indus script’s pattern is closer compared to that of spoken words, which supported the proposed hypothesis that it codes for an as-yet-unknown language.
In line with the Chinese Civilization, a few of the major techno-offerings from China include paper, early seismological detectors, toilet paper, matches, iron plough, the multi-tube seed drill, the suspension bridge, the wheelbarrow, the parachute, natural gas as fuel, the magnetic compass, the raised-relief map, the blast furnace, the propeller, the crossbow, the South Pointing Chariot, and gun powder. With the invent of paper they’ve given their first step towards developments of educational technology by further culturing different handmade products of paper as means of visual aids.
Ancient Egyptian language was at one point one of the longest surviving and used languages in the world. Their script was made up of pictures of the real such things as birds, animals, different tools, etc. These pictures are popularly called hieroglyph. Their language was made up of above 500 hieroglyphs which are referred to as hieroglyphics. On the stone monuments or tombs which were discovered and rescued latter on offers the proof existence of numerous types of artistic hieroglyphics in ancient Egypt.
Educational technology during Medieval and Modern Period
Paper and the pulp papermaking process that was developed in China during the first 2nd century AD, was carried to the Middle East and was spread to Mediterranean by the Muslim conquests. Evidences support that a paper mill was also established in Sicily in the 12th century. The discovery of spinning wheel increased the productivity of thread making process to a great extent and when Lynn White added the spinning wheel with increasing method of getting rags, this generated the production of cheap paper, that was a primary element in the development of printing technology.
The invention of the printing press was taken invest approximately 1450 AD, by Johannes Gutenburg, a German inventor. The invention of printing press was a primary developmental element in the real history of educational technology to convey the instruction depending on the necessity of the complex and advanced-technology cultured society.
In the pre-industrial phases, while industry was this is the handwork at artisan level, the instructional processes were relied heavily upon simple business pos software such things as the slate, the horn book, the blackboard, and chalk. It was limited by just one text book with a couple of illustrations. Educational technology was considered synonymous to simple aids like charts and pictures.
The entire year 1873 may be described as a landmark in the first history of technology of education or audio-visual education. An exhibition was held in Vienna at international level where an American school won the admiration of the educators for the exhibition of maps, charts, textbooks and other equipments.
Maria Montessori (1870-1952), internationally renowned child educator and the originator of Montessori Method exerted an energetic affect educational technology through her development of graded materials designed to offer for the proper sequencing of subject matter for every individual learner. Modern educational technology suggests many extension of Montessori’s idea of prepared child centered environment.
In1833, Charles Babbage’s design of a general purpose computing device laid the inspiration of the modern computer and in 1943, the initial computing machine depending on hi design was constructed by International Business Machines Corporation in USA. The Computer Assisted instruction (CAI) in which the computer functions essentially as a tutor in addition to the Talking Type writer was manufactured by O.K. Moore in 1966. Since 1974, computers are interestingly utilized in education in schools, colleges and universities.
Initially of the 19th century, there were noteworthy changes in the field of education. British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), right from its start of school broadcasts in 1920 had maintained rapid pace in making sound contribution to formal education. In the USA, by 1952, 20 states had the provision for educational broadcasting. Parallel to now about 98% of the schools in United Kingdom were designed with radios and there were regular daily programmes.
Sidney L. Pressey, a psychiatrist of Ohio state university developed a self-teaching machine called ‘Drum Tutor’ in 1920. Professor Skinner, however, in his famous article ‘Science of Learning and art of Teaching’ published in 1945 pleaded for the application form of the data produced from behavioral psychology to classroom procedures and suggested automated teaching devices as means of doing so.
Although the initial practical utilization of Regular television broadcasts was in Germany in 1929 and in 1936 the Olympic Games in Berlin were broadcasted through television stations in Berlin, Open circuit television begun to be properly used primarily for broadcasting programmes for entertainment in 1950. Since 1960, television is employed for educational purposes.
In 1950, Brynmor, in England, used educational technological steps for the initial time. It is to be cared that in 1960, as a result of industrial revolution in America and Russia, other countries also started progressing in the filed of educational technology. In this way, the beginning of educational technology took invest 1960 from America and Russia and now it has reached England, Europe and India.
In the period of around 1950s, new technocracy was turning it attraction to educations when there is a steep shortage of teachers in America and therefore an urgent need of educational technology was felt. Dr. Alvin C. Eurich and only a little later his associate, Dr. Alexander J. Stoddard introduced mass production technology in America.